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Associations

Updated! Disease or sign in the left box and associated conditions, diseases, signs, or symptoms on the right. Words in bold are either groups or are the more prominent associations.
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Disease or Sign and related Dermatologic
Association

acanthosis nigricans
acrochordons, acromegaly, Addison’s d., Bloom’s s., cancer (gastric), Crouzon’s s., Cushing’s d., diabetes mellitus, drugs, gonadal d., hyperandrogenic states, hyperinsulinism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism with insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, Lawrence-Seip s., obesity, polycystic ovary s., pituitary extract therapy, pituitary tumor, pinealoma, polycystic ovary s., Prader-Willi s., Rabson-Mendenhall s., Rud’s s., Seip-Lawrence s., thyroid d., tripe palm, Wilson’s d.
acanthosis nigricans, malignant
adenocarcinoma (bowel,breast, gallbladder, gastric), Hodgkin’s lymphoma, liver, lung, mycosis fungoides, ovaries, prostate
achrochordonacromegaly, diabetes, obesity
acne
calcinosis cutis, chronic granulomatous d., hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, keloid scars, SAPHO s.
acne necrotica miliaris
professional persons, stress
acne venenata
asbestos, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, cosmetics, crude petrolatum, cutting oil, DDT, heavy coal tar distillates, steroids
acquired perforating disorder
chronic active hepatitis, chronic renal failure, diabetes, hypothyroidism, internal malignancy, liver failure
acroangiodermatitis
AVM, chronic venous insufficiency
actinic elastosis
actinic purpura, colloid milium, nodular elastosis, poikiloderma of Civatte, stellate spontaneous pseudoscars
acute myelogenous leukemia
neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis, Sweet’s s.
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
fatigue, HIV, poor oral hygiene, smoking, stress
Addison’s d.
adrenal hemorrhage, amyloidosis, APECED s., cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, pituitary gland dysfunction, primary adrenal gland failure, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, vitiligo
adenocarcinomaBloom s., Cowden s., Gardner s., Peutz-Jeghers s.
adenoma
Cowden s., Muir-Torre s.
adenoma, pituitaryNAME s.
adenoma sebaceum
see angiofibroma
adrenal carcinomaBeckwith-Wiedemann s., Von Hippel-Lindau s.
AIDS
see HIV infection
alcoholism/ETOH consumption
dermatologic; flushing, furuncles, leukoplakia, nail changes, nummular eczema, oral carcinoma, griseofulvin intolerance, hyperpigmentation, lichenoid dermatitis, oral changes, palmar erythema, pruritus, psoriasis, pyoderma vegetans, telangiectasia, unilateral nevoid telangiectasia, urticaria
endocrine; hypogonadism, hyperestrogenism, PCT, pseudo-Cushing’s s.
exacerbated diseases; discoid eczema, psoriasis, rosacea
infections; erysipelas, Vibrio vulnificus sepsis, acquired purpura fulminans, pancreatitis, subcutaneous fat necrosis
nutritional; marasmus, kwashiorkor, pellagra, riboflavin (B2) deficiency, scurvy, zinc deficiency
other; coagulopathy, Cullen’s sign, Dupuytren’s contracture, Grey-Turner’s sign, Madelung’s d.
alopecia areata
acrodermatitis enteropathica, Addison’s d., adrenal d., Alezzandrini’s s., asthma, atopic dermatitis, connective tissue d., diabetes mellitus, Candida endocrinopathy s., Down s., Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, LP, LE, myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia, polymyalgia rheumatica, RA, stress, thyroid d. (8-12%), ulcerative colitis, vitiligo, Vogt-Koyanagi s.
amyloidosis
familial Mediterranean fever, Muckle-Wells s.
amyloidosis, lichen
Chinese, connective tissue d., eczema (associated with celiac d.), HIV, MEN 2A, Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn s., pachyonychia congenita, PUVA, radiodermatitis, Riehl’s melanosis, SLE
amyloidosis, macular
Asians, connective tissue d., eczema (associated with celiac d.), MEN 2A, Middle Easterners, Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn s., nostalgia paresthetica, pachyonychia congenita, primary biliary cirrhosis, PUVA, radiodermatitis, Riehl’s melanosis, scleroderma, SLE, South Americans
amyloidosis, nodular
paraproteinemia, proteinuria
amyloidosis, primary
multiple myeloma (15%)
amyloidosis, secondary
actinic keratosis, Addison’s d., annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, BCC, Bowen’s d., CTCL, cylindroma, dermatofibroma, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, hidradenitis suppurativa, junctional nevus, lepromatous leprosy, osteomyelitis, pilomatrixoma, porokeratosis, PUVA treated, RA, seborrheic keratosis, syphilis, tuberculosis
amyloidosis, secondary systemic
autoimmune; ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet’s s., IBD, RA, Reiter’s s., Sjögren’s s., SLE
dermatologic; acne, burns, EB panniculitis, ectodermal dysplasia, hidradenitis suppurativa, leprosy, psoriasis, venous ulcer
other; bronchiectasis, Castleman’s d., cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus, Hodgkin’s d., infections (recurrent)
anetoderma
acne, AIDS, elastin abnormalities, familial, immunologic defects, MF, syphilis (secondary), varicella, xanthoma
angioedema
B-cell lymphoma, hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis s., SLE, urticarial vasculitis
angioendotheliomatosis, reactivebacterial endocarditis, cryobloulinemia, infections, paraproteinemia
angiofibroma
adenoma sebaceum, Bourneville’s s., fibrous papules of the nose, oral fibromas, pearly penile papules, perifollicular fibromas, tuberous sclerosis, Vogt triad
angiokeratoma circumscriptum
cavernous hemangioma, Cobb’s s., Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber s., nevus flammeus
angiokeratoma of Fordyce
hernia, lymphogranuloma venereum, prostatitis, thrombophlebitis, variocele
angiokeratomas
Fabry’s d., fucosidosis, galactosialidosis, Kanzaki d., Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber s., sialidosis
angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia
regional LAD, peripheral eosinophilia
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) elevations
berylliosis, chronic inflammatory d., diabetes mellitus, Gaucher’s d., leprosy, malignant histiocytosis, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection, sarcoid, silicosis, tuberculosis
angiosarcomaMaffucci s. 
annulus migrans
acropustulosis, generalized pustular psoriasis, Reiter’s s.
aplasia cutis congenita
4p-syndrome, 13-trisomy s., Adams-Oliver s., Bart’s s., ectodermal dysplasia, oculo-cerebro-cutaneous s.
arteriovenous fistulaKlippel-Trenaunay-Weber s., Osler-Weber-Rendu s.
arthritis mutilans
multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, psoriasis
asthma
IgA deficiency s.
ataxia telangiectasia
carcinoma (biliary, gastric, ovarian), leukemia, lymphoma
atopic dermatitis (see also eczema)
acne (decreased), allergic rhinitis (>15%), anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, asthma, cataracts, chronic granulomatous d., conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, exfoliative erythroderma, geographic tongue, growth retardation, ichthyosis vulgaris, keratosis pilaris, Netherton’s d., pityriasis alba, secondary infections, urticaria, xerosis (>50%)
rare associated diseases; acrodermatitis enteropathica, agammaglobulinemia, ahistidinemia, ataxia telangiectasia, hyper IgE s., IgA deficiency s., IgM deficiency s., phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, Wiskott-Aldrich s., X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton’s)
atopy
allergic rhinitis, asthma, chelitis, conjunctivitis, Dennie-Morgan lines, geographic tongue, ichthyosis vulgaris, IgA deficiency s., keratosis pilaris, Netherton’s s., Staphylococcal infections, urticaria, viral infections (molluscum, HSV), white dermatographism, xerosis
atrophoderma (follicular)
Bazex’s s., chondrodysplasia punctata
atrophoderma vermiculatum
birefringent hairs, Down s., Eisenmenger complex, epidermal cysts, folliculitis decalvans, intra-auricular septal defect, mongolism, neurofibromatosis, Nicolau-Balus s., Rombo s.
basal cell carcinoma
arsenic exposure (arsenic keratoses), amputation stumps, BCC nevus s., Basex s., Bowen’s d., dermatofibroma, DLE, dermatofibroma, epidermolysis bullosa, epidermal nevus, gummas, Hermansky-Pudlak s., hidradenitis suppurativa, immunosuppression, leg ulcers, light skin color, linear epidermal nevi, linear unilateral basal cell nevus s., lupus vulgaris, Merkel cell ca., Muir-Torre s., nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (5-7%), onchocerciasis, porokeratosis, radiotherapy, thermal burns, Rasmussen s., Rombo s., Rothmund-Thomson s., trauma, stasis dermatitis, sun exposure, vaccination scars, wire rimmed glasses, xeroderma pigmentosa
basal cell epithelioma
porokeratosis of Mibelli
Bazex’s s.
cancer of upper respiratory system; tongue, pharynx, esophagus, lung
Becker’s nevus
developmental defects (spina bifida, breast hypoplasia, limb asymmetry), smooth muscle hamartoma
biliary cirrhosis
hyperpigmentation, jaundice, lichen planus, nail clubbing, nodular xanthoma, palmar xanthoma, pruritus, sarcoid, tuberous xanthoma
birth, lesions presenting at
acrogeria, acrokeratosis verruciformis, aggressive infantile fibromatosis, aplasia cutis, ash leaf macule, blue rubber bleb nevus s., collodion baby (ichthyosis), congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytoma, congenital total lipodystrophy, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, diffuse and macular atrophic dermatosis, endovascular papillary angioendothelioma of childhood (Dabska tumor), epidermolysis bullosa (Koebner), erythema toxicum neonatorum, fibrous hamartoma of infancy, fibromatosis colli, follicular atrophoderma, generalized congenital fibromatosis, hemangiomas, herpes gestationis, incontinentia pigmenti, infantile myofibromatosis, inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus, infundibulofolliculitis, juvenile hyaline fibromatosis, juvenile xanthogranuloma, lymphangiomas of the alveolar ridges in neonates, mastocytoma, multiple lentigines s., nevus comedonicus, nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (Hoffman-Zurhelle), Peutz-Jeghers s., piebaldism, pili torti, pseudoainhum, self-healing reticulohistiocytosis, stiff skin s., smooth muscle hamartoma, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, verrucous nevus, Waardenburg’s s., white forelock, white sponge nevus
Birt-Hogg-Dube s.
adenoma (colon), pulmonary cysts, renal tumors, spontaneous pneumothorax
Blaschko lines
acquired dermal melanosis, angioma serpiginosum, ash leaf macules (segmental), CHILD s., chondrodysplasia punctata, Delleman-Oorthuys s., focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz’s s.), hypomelanosis of Ito, ILVEN, incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia pigmenti achromians, lichen striatus, linear & whorled nevoid hypermelanosis, linear Darier’s d., linear epidermal nevus, linear lichen planus, linear melanocytic nevi, linear nevus sebaceous, linear porokeratosis, linear psoriasis, linear scleroderma, McCune-Albright s.,  mosaic EHK, nevoid telangiectasia, nevus comedonicus, nevus depigmentosus, Proteus s., Schimmelpenning-Feverstein-Mims s., vitiligo (segmental)
Bloom’s s.
adenocarcinoma (sigmoid colon), leukemia, lymphoma, lymphosarcoma, SCC
Bowen’s d.
porokeratosis of Mibelli
bromhidrosis
thiabendazole administration
bullous pemphigoid
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, LE, myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia, polymyositis, RA, thyroiditis, ulcerative colitis
calcinosis cutis
PACK s.
cancer
breast; ataxia-telangiectasia carriers, Cowden’s s., Peutz-Jeghers s.
esophagus; Howel-Evans’ s.
gastrointestinal; acanthosis nigricans, Cronkhite-Canada s., dermatomyositis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma s., Muir-Torre s., Peutz-Jeghers s.
ovarian; Peutz-Jeghers s.
pancreas; familial atypical multiple mole melanoma s., Peutz-Jeghers s.
pulmonary; Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis
renal; von Hippel-Lindau d.
thyroid; Gardner’s s., Sipple’s s.
candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous (associated diseases)
adrenal abnormalities, AIDS, APECED s., biotin dependent carboxylase deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, dental enamel dysplasia s., diabetes mellitus, DiGeorge’s s., EEC s., hyper IgE s., hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, immunodeficiency, iron deficiency, myasthenia gravis, myeloperoxidase deficiency, Nezelof’s s., parathyroid, polyendocrinopathy, severe combined immunodeficiency s., thymoma, vitiligo
candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous; types

candidiasis, chronic oral; onset any age, no inheritance pattern; oropharyngeal, sparing skin & nails

chronic candidiasis with endocrinopathy; AR; onset childhood, one or more: hypoadrenalism, hypoparathyroidism hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, antibodies to endocrine glands, alopecia, vitiligo

chronic localized candidiasis; (Candida granuloma) onset childhood, may be associated with endocrinopathy, mucosal, nail & skin, hyperkeratotic, granulomatous, vegetating Candida

chronic diffuse candidiasis; AD/AR; nails, skin, mucous membranes, no endocrinopathy

chronic candidiasis with thymoma; adult onset; myasthenia gravis, aplastic anemia, decreased neutrophils & immunoglobulins

carcinoid s., precipitated by
avocados, cheese, chocolate, eating, eggplant, emotional stress, EtOH, hot beverages/foods, pressure (on the tumor), red plums, tomatoes, Valsalva maneuver, walnuts
Castleman’s d.
HHV-8 (in HIV), POEMS s.
cellulitis
burns, eczema, edema, prior surgery, radiation therapy, tinea pedis
Chediak-Higashi s.
lymphoma
chelitis granulomatosa
Crohn’s d., Melkersson-Rosenthal s., sarcoidosis
chilblains (pernio)
angiokeratoma of Mibelli, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, LE, Northern Europeans
chloracne
erythema nodosum, exposure (chlorinated phenols, cutting oil, dioxin, electrical insulation, fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, wood preservative), palmar & plantar hyperhidrosis, porphyric changes
chondrosarcomaMaffucci s.
cirrhosis, biliary
PACK s.
cirrhosis, hepatic
hemochromatosis, lichen planus, porphyria cutanea tarda, SLE, Wilson d.
coloboma
Goltz’s s., whistling face s.
congenital melanocytic neviarachnoid cyst, Dandy-Walker malformation, intraspinal lipoma, Meckel's diverticulum, renal/ureteral malformations, rhabdomyosarcoma, syringomyelia
congestive heart failurediffuse congenital hemangiomatosis, Kasabach-Merritt s., progeria
conjunctivitisdyskeratosis congenita, porphyria, xeroderma pigmentosum
Cowden’s d.
breast cancer (30%), fibrocystic breast disease, GI polyps (35%), neurologic disease, ovarian cysts, thyroid cancer (5%)
Crohn’s d.
epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, exfoliative dermatitis, false + Kveim test, herpes zoster, IgA deficiency, lichen nitidus, LE, necrotizing vasculitis, palmar erythema, polyarteritis nodosa, psoriasis, pustular response to trauma, pyoderma gangrenosum, Reiter’s s., Stevens-Johnson s., striae, subcorneal pustular dermatosis, urticaria, vitiligo, zinc deficiency
Crouzon’s s.
acanthosis nigricans
cryoglobulinemia, essential mixed
autoimmune; Behçet’s d., hypersensitivity vasculitis, RA, Sjögren’s s., SLE
lymphoproliferative; CLL, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
infectious; cytomegalovirus, HBV, HCV, mononucleosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, toxoplasmosis
CTCL
Hodgkin’s d., large cell lymphoma, leukemia, myeloma, paraproteinemia
Cushing’s s.
acanthosis nigricans, acne, alopecia, ecchymoses, hirsutism, McCune-Albright s., NAME s.
cutis laxa, acquired

type I: amyloidosis, penicillin, penicillamine, complement deficiency, SLE

type II: ACD, EM, Sweet s.

cutis marmorata, persistent
DeLang s., Down s., Trisomy 18
cutis verticis gyrata
acromegaly, Apert’s s., acanthosis nigricans, amyloidosis, leukemia, myxedema, pachydermoperiostosis, Rosenthal-Kloepfer s., syphilis, Touraine-Solente-Gol¾ s., tuberous sclerosis
cylindroma
Ancell-Spiegler s., Brooke-Spiegler s., trichoepitheliomas
cystic hygroma, fetalNoonan s., Turner s.
cytophagic histiocytic panniculitishistiocytic malignancy, immunodeficiency, infections, LE, lipodystrophy, lymphoma
Darier’s d.
affective disorders, bone cysts, depression, epilepsy, encephalopathy, Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption, mental retardation, renal agenesis, retinitis pigmentosa, salivary gland obstruction, schizophrenia, testicular agenesis
exacerbation: lithium, sweating, trauma, UVB light
delusion of parasitosis
cerebral atherosclerosis, CVA, drug abuse, endocrinopathies, hemodialysis, medications, pellagra, vitamin B12 deficiency
dermatitis herpetiformis
Addison’s d., diabetes mellitus, gluten sensitivity enteropathy, intestinal lymphoma, iodide sensitivity, LE, RA, thyroid disease, ulcerative colitis
dermatofibromas, multiple
myasthenia gravis, SLE
dermatoglyphs, absentRapp-Hodgkin ectodermal dysplasia
dermatomyositis
cancer (breast, bronchogenic, ovary, cervix, gastrointestinal, penile, non-melanoma skin), panniculitis (lobular), Raynaud’s phenomenon, sclerodactyly
dermatophytosis, chronic
atopic dermatitis, corticosteroids, Cushing’s d., diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, lymphoma
desmoid tumorsGardner s.
diabetes insipidus
eosinophilic granuloma of bone, Hand-Schòller-Christian d., xanthoma disseminatum
diabetes mellitus
dermatologic; acanthosis nigricans, alopecia areata, anhidrosis, atrophie blanche, bullous pemphigoid, central papillary atrophy, cherry angiomas, clear cell syringoma, dermatitis herpetiformis, dermatographism, diabetic bullae (bullosis diabeticorum), diabetic dermopathy (shin spot), Dunnigan s., EBA, erythrasma (women), erythromelalgia, finger pebbling, foot ulcers, leg ulcers, lichen planus, localized bullous pemphigoid, furuncles/carbuncles, granuloma annulare, hyperhidrosis, knuckle pads, Kyrle’s d., lichen planus, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, necrotizing fasciitis, PXE, palmar/plantar fibromatosis, plane xanthoma, plantar fibromatosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, pruritus vulvae, reacting perforating collagenosis, reticulated erythematous mucinosis, scleredema, seborrheic dermatitis, skin tags, skin thickening, tendinous xanthoma, thrush, vitiligo, Werner’s s., xanthoma disseminatum, yellow skin
infectious; botryomycosis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic paronychia, crusted scabies, erosa interdigitalis blastomycetica, Fournier’s gangrene, malignant external otitis (Pseudomonas), mucormycosis, paronychia (Candida), vaginal candidiasis, Vibrio vulnificus, zygomycosis
nails; paronychia, Beau’s line, leukonychia, onychauxis, onychogryphosis, onycholysis, onychomadesis, onychomycosis, pterygium, pterygium inversum unguis, Rosenau’s depressions, splinter hemorrhages, telangiectasias, Terry’s nails, yellow nail s.
systemic; ataxia telangiectasia, Achard-Thiers s., IgA deficiency, metageria, POEMS s., pangeria (Werner’s s.), Prader-Willi s.
other; glossodynia, gustatory sweating, Lawrence-Seip s., malum perforans pedis, night blindness, non-thrombocytopenic purpura, orodynia, partial lipodystrophy, pathologic gustatory sweating, penile fibromatosis (Peyronie’s d.), perleche, premature aging, rubeosis, subcutaneous fat necrosis, Talwin addiction, total lipodystrophy
dialysis
polyarteritis nodosa, pruritus
diaphoresis, nocturnalacromegaly, carcinoid s., chronic infection, DM, drug withdrawal, dysautonomia, endocarditis, Hodgkins disease, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia secondary to insulinoma, lymphoma, pheochromocytoma, Prinzetal's angina, systemic vasculitis, TB
Dowling-Degos’ d.
hidradenitis suppurativa, Kitamura’s reticulate acropigmentation
Down s.
acrocyanosis, alopecia areata, angular chelitis, atrophoderma vermiculata, chelitis, cutis marmorata, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, fungal infections, geographic tongue, hepatitis B, leukemia, lymphoma, macroglossia, Norwegian scabies, perforating collagenosis, seborrheic dermatitis, scabies, scrotal tongue, syringoma (eruptive), vitiligo
DSAP
immunosuppressive therapy, p53, phototherapy for psoriasis, SCC
Dupuytren’s d.
alcoholism, diabetes, knuckle pads, liver disease, Peyronie d., plantar fibromatosis, seizure disorders, smoking
dyskeratosis congenita
Hodgkin’s d., leukemia, leukoplakia, nail dystrophy, rectal adenocarcinoma, SCC
dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
absent nails, caries, failure to thrive, melanoma, milia, pseudosyndactyly, SCC, sepsis, scarring, scarring alopecia
ectroprion
Rapp-Hodgkin s.
eczema
ataxia telangiectasia, atopic dermatitis, Bruton’s x-linked agammaglobulinemia, cardio-facio-cutaneous s., chronic granulomatous d., Dubokowitz’s s., episodic lymphopenia with lymphocytotoxin, house dust mite infestation, hyper IgE s., IgA deficiency, IgM deficiency, Leiner’s d., Letterer-Siwe d., leukocyte alkaline phosphatase deficiency, lymphopenic aggamaglobulinemia, phenylketonuria, protein calorie deficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich s., x-linked agammaglobulinemia, x-linked immunodeficiency with elevated IgM
eczema craquele
Hodgkin’s d., myxedema, stomach adenocarcinoma, zinc deficiency
eczema herpeticum
atopic dermatitis, burns, contact dermatitis (chronic irritant), congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, Darier’s d., Hailey-Hailey d., ichthyosis vulgaris, impetigo, mycosis fungoides, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, Wiskott-Aldrich s.
eczema, nummularpomphylox
elastosis perforans serpiginosa
acrogyria, Down s., Ehlers-Danlos s., Marfan s., morphea, osteogenesis imperfecta, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, renal d., Rothmund-Thomson s., systemic sclerosis, Wilson d. + penicillamine, XYY s.
elephantiasis
chromomycosis, filariasis, schistosomiasis
enchondromasMaffucci s. 
endocarditis
reactive angioendotheliomatosis, proliferating angioendotheliomatosis, lupus erythematosus
eosinophilic fasciitis
myeloproliferative disorders
epidermal cysts
Gardner’s s.
epidermal nevus
BCC, SCC, syringocystadenoma papilliferum
epidermolysis bullosa acquisita
bronchial cancer, inflammatory bowel d., lymphoma, multiple myeloma
epilepsy
juvenile xanthogranuloma, Vogt triad
eruptive xanthomas
chronic pancreatitis, hypertriglyceridemia
erysipelas
burns, eczema, edema, prior surgery, radiation therapy, tinea pedis
erythema ab igne
Merkel cell carcinoma, SCC
erythema annulare centrifugum
ascaris, autoimmune disease, blood dyscrasia, Candida, carcinoma, dermatophyte infection, drug sensitivity, Epstein-Barr virus, hypereosinophilic s., Penicillium mold sensitivity
erythema elevatum diutinum
dermatitis herpetiformis, HIV, IgA myeloma, myelodysplasia, prostate carcinoma, RA, streptococcal infection
erythema gyratum repens
dermatologic: ichthyosis (16%), palmar-plantar keratoderma (10%)
malignancy: carcinoma (84%; bladder, breast, cervix, esophagus, lung, prostate, stomach), multiple myeloma
erythema multiforme
infectious; adenovirus, coccidioidomycosis, coxsackievirus B5, hepatitis A virus, herpes zoster, histoplasmosis, HSV, infectious mononucleosis, milker’s nodule, mycobacteria, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, orf, psittacosis, septicemia (gram negative), Streptococcus, tuberculosis, tularemia, Yersinia
other; acute GVHD, contact dermatitis, drugs, leukemia (acute), x-ray therapy
erythema nodosum
bacterial; Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamydia, leishmaniasis, leptospirosis, Streptococcus, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, Whipple’s d., Yersinia
drugs; estrogens, OCPs, sulfones
fungal; blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, Trichophyton
malignancy; Hodgkin’s d., leukemia, post-radiated pelvic cancer
miscellaneous; Behçet’s s., Crohn’s d. (2-15%), IBD,Lofgren’s s., pregnancy, ulcerative colitis (4-10%), sarcoidosis
viral; cat-scratch, HSV, mononucleosis, lymphogranuloma venereum, ornithosis, psittacosis
erythrocyanosisangiokeratomas, KP, telangiectasia 
erythromelalgia
primary: gout, heavy metal poisoning, lupus erythematosus, occlusive vascular d., polycythemia vera, neurological d., thrombocytopenia
secondary: cutaneous vasculitis, drugs, hypertension, RA, SLE
esophageal carcinomaHowel-Evans s.
esophageal stenosisDEB
exfoliate erythroderma
see signs & symptoms section
Fabry d.renal failure
familial Mediterranean fever
erysipeloid eruption, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, renal amyloidosis, urticaria, vasculitic nodules
Fanconi’s s.
leukemia, SCC of mucocutaneous junction
fibrofolliculomas
Birt-Hogg-Dube s.
fibromas
Gardner’s s.
florid cutaneous papillomatosisgastric cancer
follicular atrophoderma
atrophoderma vermiculata, Bazex’s s., Conradi’s d., keratosis follicularis spinulosa atrophicans, keratosis palmoplantaris disseminata, keratosis pilaris rubra facei, ulerythema oophyrogenes
follicular mucinosis
CLL, Hodgkin d., Kaposi sarcoma, mycosis fungoides, systemic lymphoma
folliculitis, perforating
acanthosis nigricans, arteriosclerosis, psoriasis
gammopathy
angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, diffuse plane xanthomatosis, erythema elevatum diutinum, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, papular mucinosis, plane xanthoma, scleromyxedema, scleredema, subcorneal pustular dermatosis
Gardner’s s.
cancer (colon, GI), desmoid tumors
geographic tongue
see glossitis, benign migratory
glaucoma
Behçet’s d., nevus of Ota, Sturge-Weber s., Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada s.
glomerulonephritis
congenital lues, phenol, lepromatous leprosy, nephritogenic strains of Group A streptococcus, secondary lues, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, varicella
glossitis, benign migratory
AIDS, asthma, atopy, Down s., eczema, hay fever, HLA-Cw6, LP, normal persons, oral lithium treatment, psoriasis
Gorlin-Goltz s.astrocytoma, BCC, craniopharyngioma, medulloblastoma, meningioma
granuloma annulare (generalized)
carbohydrate intolerance, diabetes mellitus, HIV
granulomatous slack skin
Hodgkin’s d.
Grover’s d.
adhesive tape, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, PRP, tinea versicolor, pemphigus foliaceus
Hailey-Hailey d.
allergic contact dermatitis, SCC
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
lupus erythematosus, PSS, Sjögren’s s., hypothyroidism
hemangioma, cavernessblue rubber bleb nevus s., Maffucci s.
hematopoietic ulcers
congenital hemolytic anemia, Cooley’s anemia (thalassemia major), cryofibrinogenemia, cryoglobulinemia, macroglobulinemia, polycythemia vera, sickle cell anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
antiphospholipid syndrome, Behçet’s disease, Berger d. (IgA glomerulonephritis), cancer (colon, bronchial, prostatic), cryoglobulinemia, drugs (ampicillin, penicillin, erythromycin, quinidine, quinine) familial Mediterranean fever, hematologic malignancies, hepatitis C, influenza vaccination, lymphoma, monoclonal gammopathy, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, PAN, pregnancy, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, URI (Group A streptococcus, B-hemolytic streptococcus)
hepatitis
bedbug bites, Chediak-Higashi s., Down s. (more susceptible), X-linked agammaglobulinemia, generalized pustular psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, lichen planus, ketoconazole treatment (rare), Vibrio vulnificus infection, secondary lues, benign cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, polyarteritis nodosa, urticaria, SLE, Wegener’s granulomatosis
hepatitis B
asymptomatic erythematous eruption (chronic), dermatomyositis-like, erythema nodosum, essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, LP, Gianotti-Crosti s., polyarteritis nodosa, pyoderma gangrenosum, serum sickness-like, urticaria
hepatitis C
Behcet s., B-cell lymphoma, canities, erythema multiforme, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, lichen planus, lymphocytic salivary gland infiltration, MALT, mixed cryoglobulinemia (36-45%), necrolytic acral erythema, PN, polyarteritis nodosa, porphyria cutanea tarda, urticaria, vitiligo
hepatitis, chronic active
lichen planus, SLE
herpes gestationis
hydatiform moles, germ cell tumors, Graves d.
herpes simplex, generalized
leukemia, lymphoma, mycosis fungoides
herpes simplex, recurrent
erythema multiforme
herpes zoster
AIDS, breast cancer, corticosteroids, Hodgkin’s disease, immunosuppressive drugs, increasing age, radiation
herpes zoster, disseminated
leukemia, lymphoma
hidradenitis suppurativa
acne (severe), amyloidosis (secondary), anemia, chronic granulomatous d., interstitial keratitis, hypoproteinemia, obesity
Hirschprung d.Waardenburg s. 
histiocytosis, Langerhans cell leukemia (AML, ALL), lymphoma, solid tumors
HIV infection
infectious; bacillary angiomatosis, candidiasis, condyloma, cryptococcus, Cytomegalovirus, Demodex, dermatophyte, oral hairy leukoplakia, Herpes simplex, histoplasmosis, HIV exanthem, human papillomavirus, Kaposi’s sarcoma, leprosy, molluscum contagiosum, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Penicillinosis, Pityrosporum, scabies (crusted), Pneumocystis carinii (cutaneous), PRP, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Syphilis, tinea versicolor, Toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, Varicella zoster
miscellaneous; alopecia areata, aphthous ulcers, drug reactions, eosinophilic folliculitis, GA, gingival hypertrophy, hyperalgesic pseudothrombophlebitis, periorbital ecchymosis, photosensitivity (acquired), PCT, premature graying (poliosis), trichomegaly (acquired), vitiligo
neoplastic; BCC, extramedullary plasmacytoma, lymphoma, SCC
papulosquamous; balanitis circinata, exfoliative erythroderma, ichthyosis (acquired), keratoderma blennorrhagicum, pityriasis rubra pilaris, psoriasis, Reiter’s s., seborrheic dermatitis, thrombocytopenic purpura, xerosis
vascular; EED, hyperallergic pseudothrombophlebitis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, telangiectasia, TTP, vasculitis
Hodgkin’s d.
Addison’s d., exfoliative dermatitis, granulomatous slack skin, herpes zoster, mycosis fungoides, pruritus, urticaria
hyperhidrosisBRBN, causalgia, dyskeratosis congenita, familial dysautonomia, glomus tumor, Gopland s., pachydermoperiostosis, pachyonycia congenita, painful pretibial myxedema, Papillion-LeFevre s., POEMS s.
hyperhidrosis, generalizedanxiety, CHF, DM, dumping s., hyperpituitarism, hypoglycemia, thyrotoxicosis
hypereosinophilic s.
dermatographism, EAC, erythroderma, Raynaud’s phenomenon, T-cell lymphoma, vasculitis
hypertrichosis lanuginosa
acanthosis nigricans-like, anorexia nervosa, cancer (bladder, breast, colon, gallbladder, lung, ovarian, pancreas, rectum, uterine), carcinoid, CLL, drugs, follicular hyperkeratosis, glossitis, ichthyosis, lymphoma, nail pitting, palmar-plantar keratoses, subungual epidermal hyperplasia
hypospadiaRapp-Hodgkin s.
ichthyosis hystrix
aminoaciduria, anaphylaxis (to food), asthma, atopic diathesis, epilepsy, IgE elevation, impaired cellular immunity, mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities
ichthyosis vulgaris
atopic dermatitis (50%), cardio-facio-cutaneous s., hypohidrosis with heat intolerance (rare), keratosis pilaris
ichthyosis, acquired
malignancies; carcinoma (breast, cervix, colon, lung), carcinomatosis, Hodgkin’s d., lymphoma (10%), Kaposi’s sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, multiple myeloma, mycosis fungoides, rhabdomyosarcoma
infectious; AIDS, HIV, HTLV-II, lepromatous leprosy
systemic; dermatomyositis, eosinophilic fasciitis, essential fatty acid deficiency, hemochromatosis, hyperthyroidism hypothyroidism, Kwashiorkor, malabsorption, malnutrition, mixed connective tissue d., renal failure (chronic), sarcoidosis, SLE
other; DEB (Cockayne-Touraine), drugs, xeroderma pigmentosa
ichthyosis, recessive X-linked
asymptomatic corneal opacities (50% adults), cryptorchidism (25%), testicular cancer
id reaction
contact allergy, fungal infection, stasis dermatitis
ILVEN
congenital skeletal deformities, internal organ malformations
immunodeficiency
alopecia, eczema, skin infection, lupus erythematosus-like
impetigo herpetiformis
hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia
incontinentia pigmenti AML, cataracts, retinoblastoma, spastic paresis, seizure, Wilm tumor
infantile acropustulosis
scabies
inflammatory bowel d.
annular erythema, aphthous ulcers, bowel associated dermatosis-arthritis s., clubbing, cutaneous Crohn’s d., epidermolysis bullosa, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, fistulae, granuloma, lichen planus, malnutrition, metastatic Crohn’s d., pyoderma gangrenosum, urticaria, vasculitis, vitiligo
isotopic responseacneiform eruption, angiosarcoma, BCC, comedones, eosinophilic dermatosis, furunculosis, granulomas, KS, lichenoid GVH, lichen planus, LSC, lymphoma, leukemia, morphea, perforating collagenosis, pseudolymphoma, psoriasis, tinea
juvenile xanthogranuloma
neurofibromatosis type 1 and AML, Niemann-Pick d., seizures, urticaria pigmentosis
Kaposi’s sarcoma
AIDS, angioimmunoblastic LAD with dysproteinemia, Mediterranean Classic: lymphoma
Kawasaki d.
Asians (Japanese), atopic dermatitis (9x risk)
keloids
acne, acromegaly, blacks, hyperthyroidism, Noonan s., pregnancy, Rubinstein-Taybi s., Turner s.
keratoacanthoma
exposure to pitch & tar, HPV-16 & 37, organ transplant, smoking, sun exposure, Muir-Torre’s s., xeroderma pigmentosum
keratoconjunctivitis sicca
PACK s.
keratoconusEhlers-Danlos s.
keratoderma
dyskeratosis congenita, ectodermal defects, hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, Huriez s., KID s., pachyonychia congenita (type II),
keratoderma, acquired
AIDS, dermatophyte infections, diabetes mellitus, myxedema
keratoderma, palmar and plantar
Jackson-Sertoli s. (limited plantar), PRP, psoriasis, Reiter’s s., Richner-Hanhart s., S¾zary s., Steijlen’s s.
keratopathy
chloroquine ingestion, congenital lues
keratosis pilaris
atopic dermatitis, erythrocyanosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, keratosis pilaris rubra facei
Kimura d. renal disease (nephrotic syndrome) 
Koebner’s phenomenon in psoriasis
endogenous; dermatitis, furuncles, lichen planus, lymphangitis, miliaria, PR, vitiligo, zoster
exogenous; abrasions, acupuncture, irritants, chemical burns, burns, contusions, electrodesiccation, excoriation, fellatio, freezing, incision, laceration, pressure, radiation, rubbing, scrapes, scratches, shaving, skin grafts, surgery, tape, tattoos, vaccinations
Kyrle’s d.
congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hepatic insufficiency, renal disease
lentigines (disorders)
Peutz-Jeghers s., LEOPARD s., lentiginosis with cardiocutaneous myxomas, Touraine’s centrofacial lentiginosis, Tay’s s., Soto’s s., Ruvalcaba-Myhre-Smith s.
leukemia
ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom’s s., Bruton’s X-linked agammaglobulinemia, bullous pyoderma gangrenosum, Cockayne’s s., Down s., ecthyma gangrenosa, erythromelalgia, gangrene, Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis, Norwegian scabies, pernio, Sweet’s s., urticaria, zygomycosis
leukemia (acute granulocytic)
cutaneous extramedullary hematopoiesis, neutrophilic hidradenitis, pyoderma gangrenosum (bullous hemorrhagic), Sweet’s s.
leukonychia
acrokeratosis verruciformis, alopecia areata, anemia, cachectic state, carcinoid s., cirrhosis, congenital, cryoglobulinemia, Darier’s d., dyshidrosis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, fungi, gout, Hodgkin’s d., hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, Kawasaki s., lead poisoning, LEOPARD s., leprosy, leukonychia striata semilunaris, malaria, pachyonychia congenita, pellagra, rickettsial infection, sickle cell anemia, sulfonamides, syphilis, tuberculosis, trauma, trichinosis, ulcerative colitis, zinc deficiency
leukopenia
chickenpox, leishmaniasis, measles, RMSF, rubella, SLE
lichen planus
amebiasis, bladder infections, chronic active hepatitis, HBV, HCV, HSV-2, primary biliary cirrhosis (usually post-penicillamine therapy), syphilis, ulcerative colitis
lichen sclerosis
alopecia areata, Borrelia burgdorferi, diabetes mellitus, morphea, pernicious anemia, SCC, thyroid d., vitiligo
lichen simplex chronicus (2°)
atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, seborrheic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, tinea corporis, xerosis
lichen spinulosis
arsphenamine, gold, HIV, Hodgkin’s d., lichen scrofulosorum, mycotic id reactions, seborrheic dermatitis, syphilis, thallium
linear IgA disease cancer (bladder, esophagus), CLL, hydatidiform mole, lymphoma, myeloma
lipodermoid tumors
epidermal nevus s.
lipomas
Dercum’s d., proteus s.
lipodystrophy, partial diabetes mellitus (20%), hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, pancreatitis 
livedo
atrophie blanche, cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, DLE, polyarteritis nodosa, PSS, rheumatoid arthritis, secondary syphilis, SLE
livedo reticularis
Drugs: amantadine, quinidine, quinine
Infectious: meningococcemia, pneumococcal sepsis, rheumatic fever, 
Intravascular obstruction: anticardiolipin s., arterial or air emboli, arteriosclerosis, cardiac failure, cryoglobulinemia, dysproteinemia, hematologic stasis, homocystinuria, hypercalcemia, polycythemia vera, primary hyperoxaluria, thrombocythemia
Other: idiopathic
Physiologic: cutis marmorata, decompression sickness, hyperparathyroidism, pheochromocytoma, thrombocytopenic purpura,
Vessel disease: arteritis, collagen vascular disease, dermatomyositis, hyperparathyroidism, lymphoma, PAN, pancreatitis, RA, scleroderma, SLE, syphilis, tuberculosis
livedoid vasculitis anticardiolipin Ab, fibrinolytic anomalies, HCV, protein C deficiency
Lofgren’s s.
pulmonary infections, sarcoidosis
lupus erythematosus
dermatofibroma, xeroderma pigmentosa
lupus erythematosus, neonatal
anemia, cholestatic liver disease (10%), heart block (50%), leukopenia, pneumonitis, skin disease (50%), splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia (10%)
lupus vulgaris
BCC, SCC
lymphedema
cellulitis (recurrent), congenital, postoperative, post-radiation, malignant infiltration
lymphoid hyperplasia, B-cellaccupuncture, Ag injection, Borrelia infection, drug reaction, herpes zoster, persistent insect bite reaction
lymphoma
Duncan’s d., hidradenitis suppurativa, hyperpigmentation, Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis, Louis-Bar s., perioral dermatitis, psoriasis, reticulated erythematous mucinosis, toxic shock s.
lymphomatoid papulosis
10-20% develop MF or Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Maffucci’s s.
pancreatic cancer, chondrosarcoma, sarcoma
medulloblastoma
ataxia-telangiectasia, Gorlin’s s.
melanoma, poor prognosis
age > 50, depth (increasing Breslow's depth), disseminated disease, increased mitotic activity, microscopic satellites, location (head, neck, trunk, hands, feet), males, ulceration
melasma
cosmetics, endocrine disease, female, hepatic disease, Hispanic, neuroleptic medications, nutrition, OCPs, ovarian dysfunction, parasitosis, pregnancy, thyroid disease
meningococcemia
children < 5, military recruits, patients with complement deficiency
milia formation (secondary milia)
acne, BP, bullous lichen planus, congenital, dermabrasion, epidermolysis bullosa, herpes zoster, porphyria cutanea tarda, Rombo s., second degree burn, scar, sweat retention s., topical steroids
Mondor’s d.
breast cancer, breast surgery, excessive physical strain, infection, RA, trauma
monilethrix
cataracts, keratosis pilaris, nail anomalies, physical retardation, syndactyly, teeth anomalies, trichorrhexis nodosa
mononucleosis
Duncan’s d.
Muir-Torre s.
colon, endometrium, GI, laryngeal cancer
multicentric reticulohistiocytosis cancer (breast, bronchus, cervix, colon, ovary, stomache), DM, lymphoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, sarcoma, TB, thyroid d.
multiple myeloma
alopecia, amyloidosis (primary), angioedema, cryoglobulinemia, follicular spicules of the nose, ichthyosiform dermatitis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, petechiae, POEMS s., plane xanthoma, pruritus, purpura, pyoderma gangrenosum, Raynaud’s, scleredema, scleromyxedema, subcorneal pustular dermatosis, Sweet’s s.
multiple sclerosis
erythromelalgia, pruritus
myasthenia gravis
basaloid follicular hamartomas, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with thymoma, lichen planus, pemphigus erythematosus, SLE, trichoepithelioma
mycosis fungoides
actinic reticuloid, alopecia mucinosa, IgM deficiency, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, lymphomatoid pityriasis lichenoides
myotonic dystrophy pilomatricoma
necrobiosis lipoidica
DM (66%)
necrolytic acral erythema HCV, LP, mixed cryoglobulinemia, PAN, PCT, pruritus
necrolytic migratory erythema
celiac sprue, glucagonoma (90%), hepatic cirrhosis, hyperglucagonemia, pancreatitis, zinc deficiency
Netherton’s s.
ichthyosis linearis circumflexa, lamellar ichthyosis, pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, trichorrhexis nodosa
neurofibromatosis I
endocrine; acromegaly, Addison d., cretinism, diabetes, gynecomastia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism multiple endocrine adenomatosis, pheochromocytoma, precocious puberty
neoplasms; acoustic neuroma, AML, astrocytoma, CML, ependymoma, fibrosarcoma, glioma (optic nerve), nephroblastoma, neurofibrosarcoma, ocular melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, schwannoma
neurological; deafness, exophthalmos, macrocephaly, mental retardation, seizures, speech impediments
skeletal; kyphosis, pseudoarthrosis, scoliosis, short stature
neurofibromatosis type II
central neurofibromatosis; bilateral acoustic neuromas, meningioma, posterior subscapular cataracts, spinal glioma, unilateral schwanomma
neuroma, acousticMEN type II, NF II
neuroma, mucosal
Sipple’s s.
neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis
AML (100%), breast cancer, chemotherapy (myelomonocytic leukemia), GU tumors, Hodgkin’s d., HIV, lung cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, osteosarcoma, teratoma, testicular carcinoma
nevi
NAME s.
nevi, blue
cardiac myxoma, LAMB s., lentigines, nodular mastocytosis
nevi, connective tissue
Buschke-Ollendorff s., elastosis perforans serpiginosa, pseudoxanthoma elasticum
nevi, elastin
Buschke-Ollendorff s., elastosis perforans serpiginosa, isolated, pseudoxanthoma elasticum
nevi, linear epidermal
proteus s.
nevoid basal cell s.
astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma, fibrosarcoma, medulloblastoma, meningioma
nevus anemicus
neurofibromatosis
nevus araneus 
alcoholism, chronic liver d., estrogens, OCPs, pregnancy, RA, thyrotoxicosis
nevus comedonicus
BCC, benign eccrine tumors, follicular tumors, trichilemmal cyst
nevus, congenital giantNF 
nevus depigmentosus MR, seizures, unilateral limb hypertrophy 
nevus flammeus
Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber s., Sturge-Weber s.
nevus of Ota
intracranial melanoma, meningeal melanoma
nevus sebaceous
BCC, sebaceous carcinoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, syringoma, trichilemmoma
nevus, halo
dysplastic nevi, melanoma, pernicious anemia, poliosis, vitiligo (20%), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada s.
Noonan s. keratosis follicularis, spinulosa decalvans, ulerythema oophyregenes
ochronosis
alkaptonuria
odontogenic cyst BCN s.  
oral cancer
alcoholism, betel nut, iron deficiency, reverse smoking, smoking, syphilitic glossitis, wine
osteolysis
acne fulminans, juvenile hyaline fibromatosis, PSS, systemic nodular panniculitis (Weber-Christian), xanthoma disseminatum
osteoma cutis
Albright’s s., basal cell epithelioma, dermatomyositis, inflammatory diseases, intradermal nevi, mixed tumor of the skin, primary from childhood, scars, scleroderma
osteomyelitis
congenital syphilis, diabetic foot ulcer, mycetoma (Madura foot), secondary syphilis, tertiary lues
osteoporosis
progeria
osteosarcomaRothmund-Thompson s. 
otitis media
hyper IgE s., Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis, SCID, Wiskott-Aldrich s.
pachyonychia congenita
Sch¬fer’s s.
Paget’s d.
breast cancer (95%)
Paget’s d., extramammary
carcinoma-breast, colon, genitourinary (10%), sweat gland carcinoma (10%)
panniculitis
infection; actinomycosis, blastomycosis, Campylobacter colitis, cat scratch d., Chlamydia, chromomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, gonorrhea, histoplasmosis, leprosy, lymphogranuloma inguinale, mononucleosis,mycetoma, ornithosis, Salmonella, Shigella, sporotrichosis, streptococcal, syphilis, trichophytosis, tuberculosis, Yersinia
other; Behçet’s d., carcinoma, Crohn’s d., drugs, erythema nodosum, fasciitis with eosinophilia, Hodgkin’s d., leukemia, necrobiosis lipoidica, OCPs, periarteritis nodosa, pregnancy, sarcoidosis, sarcoma, Sweet’s s., ulcerative colitis
papillomas, multiple (perioral and mucous membrane)
Goltz s.
papular mucinosis
eosinophilia-myalgia s., neurologic abnormalities, polyarthritis, proximal myopathy
paronychia
acrodermatitis enteropathica, enchondroma, histiocytosis X, mucocutaneous candidiasis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, occupations, pemphigus, progressive systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, Reiter’s s., retinoids, Rubinstein-Taybi s., Stevens-Johnson s., SLE, yellow nail s.
pellagra
alcoholism, carcinoid, corn diet, drugs, eating disorder, GI bypass surgery, Hartnup d.
pemphigus erythematosus
bronchial carcinoma, LE, myasthenia gravis with malignant thymoma
pemphigus foliaceus
associations: myasthenia gravis, thymoma
precipitating factors
: emotional stress, fatigue, heat, menstruation, sunlight
pemphigus vulgaris
Ashkenazi Jews, colon cancer, Hodgkin’s d., Kaposi’s sarcoma, lymphoma, myasthenia gravis, thymoma (<5%)
pemphigus, paraneoplastic
breast cancer, CLL, Castleman’s d., non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (90%), thymoma, spindle cell neoplasms, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
peptic ulcer d.
telangiectasia macularis eruptive perstans
pernio (chilblains)
angiokeratoma, LE, myelomonocytic leukemia, Northern Europeans
Peutz-Jeghers s.
GI cancer
pheochromocytoma
MEN IIA, MEN IIB, neurofibromatosis, Sipple’s s., von Hippel-Lindau s.
piebaldism
heterochromia irides, Hirschsprung’s d., MR, osteopathia striata, Woolf’s s., Ziprowski-Margolis s.
pilomatricoma, multiple fronto-parietal baldness, Gardner s., myotonica atrophica, Raynaud phenomenon, Rubenstein-Taybi s.
pityriasis amantacea
psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis
pityriasis lichenoides
HIV, streptococcal pharyngitis, toxoplasma gondii
pityriasis rotunda malignancy, systemic disease
pityriasis rubra pilaris
HIV
Pityrosporum ovale
achromia parasitica, confluent & reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot & Carteaud, obstructive dacryocystitis, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor
Plummer-Vinson s.
SCC (mouth, pharynx, esophagus) 10%
poikiloderma (inherited) Cockayne s., dyskeratosis congenita, Rothmund-Thompson s., XP 
poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans
acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, arsenism, dyskeratosis congenita, Fanconi’s s., Kindler’s s., large plaque parapsoriasis, lupus erythematosus, poikiloderma congenitale, Werner’s s., xeroderma pigmentosum
polyarteritis nodosa
allergic hyposensitization, drug reaction, familial Mediterranean fever, hairy cell leukemia, HBV (chronic), HIV, inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoreticular malignancies, methamphetamine abuse, mixed cryoglobulinemia, parvovirus B19, post-infectious serous otitis, post-streptococcal B infection, RA, SLE, trichinosis
polychondritis, relapsing DM, psoriasis, RA, Sjogren s., SLE, spondylarthropathy, vasculitis
polycystic ovaries
Stein-Leventhal s.
polymyositis
Sjögren’s s.
pompholyx
atopy, balsam allergy, nickel allergy (26%), nummular eczema
porokeratosis of Mibelli
BCC, Bowen’s d., SCC
porphyria cutanea tarda
carcinomatosis, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, drugs, EtOH, HCV, hemochromatosis, hepatoma, HIV, Hodgkin’s d., lupus erythematosus, lymphoma, polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, reticuloendotheliomatosis
progressive systemic sclerosis
dysphagia, esophageal stricture, hypothyroidism, pericarditis, pulmonary fibrosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, Sjögren’s s.
pseudolymphoma, B-cell
borreliosis
pseudolymphoma, T-cell
allergic contact dermatitis, drug allergy (phenytoin)
pseudoporphyria
furosemide, hemodialysis, nalidixic acid, naproxen, NSAIDs, pyridoxine, tetracycline
pseudoxanthoma elasticum
angioid streaks (85%), elastosis perforans serpiginosa
pseudoxanthoma elasticum, perforating
angioid streaks of eye (rare), hypertension, obesity
psoriasis
antimalarials, Crohn’s d. (1.6x), diabetes, eczema, gouty arthritis, heart failure, HIV, hypertension, IBD, lichen planus, lichen simplex chronicus, obesity, oropharyngeal infections, seborrheic dermatitis, smoking, stress, ulcerative colitis (3.8x)
reduced incidence; allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, bacterial & viral skin infections, urticaria
psoriasis, erythrodermic
antimalarials, B-blockers, corticosteroids, infection, lithium, NSAIDs, phototoxic erythema
psoriasis, guttate
b-hemolytic streptococcal (S. pyogenes) throat infection (up to 85%), drug eruption
psoriasis, pustular (von Zumbusch)
arthropathy, HLA-B27, hypoalbuminemia (with 2° hypocalcemia), infections, lithium, OCPs, pregnancy, steroid withdrawal
psoriatic arthritis, juvenile
chronic anterior uveitis
psychocutaneous dermatoses
alopecia areata, automutilation, dermatitis artefacta, dermatothlasia, dysmorphic disorder, factitial syndromes, lichen simplex chronicus, neurotic excoriation, prurigo nodularis, psychogenic pruritus, psychogenic purpura, telogen effluvium, trichotillomania, trigeminal trophic s.
pustular eruption
acetaminophen, amoxicillin, ampicillin, calcium channel blockers, carbamazepine, cefaclor, erythromycin, imipenam, nifedipine, ofloxacin, penicillin, quinidine
pustulosis palmaris et plantaris
heavy smokers, high humidity & temperature, osteomyelitis, thyroid abnormalities, tonsillitis
pyoderma gangrenosum
chronic active hepatitis, IBD (Crohn’s d.-16%, ulcerative colitis-15%), leukemia (10%), immunodeficiency, monoclonal gammopathy, myelofibrosis, myeloid metaplasia, myeloma, paraproteinemia, polycythemia vera, primary biliary cirrhosis, RA, sarcoid, SLE, Takayasu’s arteritis
pyoderma gangrenosum, bullous hemorrhagic
myelogenous leukemia (80%)
pyoderma vegetans
ulcerative colitis
pyogenic granuloma
isotretinoin, pregnancy
pyostomatitis vegetans
50-70% associated with IBD
radiodermatitis
BCC, fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, SCC
Raynaud’s phenomenon
connective tissue; CREST s., dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue d., PACK s., PSS, rheumatoid arthritis,scleroderma, Sjögren’s s., SLE
hematologic; cold agglutinins, cryoglobulinemia, dysproteinemia, multiple myeloma, panarteritis nodosa, paroxysmal hemoglobinuria, thrombosis, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Wegener’s granulomatosis
medicine; b-adrenergic blockers, cancer chemotherapy, ergots, heavy metal
miscellaneous; bowel bypass s., electrical shock, endocarditis (subacute bacterial), hypereosinophilic s., pilomatrixoma
neurologic; carpal tunnel s., cervical rib s., CNS disease, multiple sclerosis, shoulder girdle compression s., thoracic outlet s.
occupational; occupational trauma, pneumatic hammer use, vibrating machinery, vinyl chloride exposure
systemic; carcinoma, cirrhosis, hypothyroidism, lymphosarcoma, malaria, morphea (generalized)
vascular; arterial embolism, arteriosclerosis obliterans, Buerger’s d., coronary artery d.
reticular erythematous mucinosis
carcinoma (colon, breast), diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thrombocytopenic purpura
rheumatoid arthritis
bullous pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, erythema elevatum diutinum, Felty’s s. (1%), livedo vasculitis, nail ridging & beading, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, Sjögren’s s., subcorneal pustular dermatosis, yellow nail s.
sarcoidosis
Addison’s d., carcinoma, cataracts, EM, EN, erythroderma, glaucoma, Heerfordt s., Lofgren’s s., papilledema, Sweet s., thyroid d., uveitis, vitiligo
sarcomas
Maffucci’s s.
scabies, crusted (Norwegian)
leukemia, lymphoma
schizophrenia
acrocyanosis
scleredema
DM with CAD, monoclonal gammopathy, multiple myeloma, streptococcal infection
scleroderma
lung cancer, Sjögren’s s., Werner’s s.
seborrheic dermatitis (see also eczema)
AIDS, denervation, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, Leiner’s d., neuroleptic drugs, Parkinson’s d., seizures, sprue
seborrheic keratoses
Hermansky-Pudlak s.
serum sickness
antithymocyte globulin, streptokinase
serum sickness-like
penicillin, sulfa
sickle cell anemia
leg ulcers, melanosis (legs)
Sjögren’s s.
B-cell lymphoma (44x), hypereosinophilic s., necrotizing vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis, RA, Raynaud’s phenomenon, scleroderma, SLE, Sweet’s s.
Sjögren’s s., secondary
cirrhosis (primary biliary), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hepatitis (chronic active), polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis, RA, scleroderma, SLE
skin tags
obesity, pregnancy
Sneddon-Wilkinson d.
apudoma, CD30 + anaplastic large cell lymphoma, Crohn’s d., hyperthyroidism, IgA paraproteinemia, IgA myeloma, IgG paraproteinemia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, non-small cell lung carcinoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, RA, ulcerative colitis
spider nevus
alcoholism,chronic liver d., estrogens, OCPs, pregnancy, RA, thyrotoxicosis
spindle cell hemangioendothelioma .ymphedema, Mafucci s., Klippel-Trenaunay s., varicose veins
spindle cell tumors
Danoff s.
squamous cell carcinoma
dermatologic; acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, acrokeratosis verruciformis, actinic keratosis, balanitis xerotica obliterans, chelitis glandularis, chronic sinus tract, cutaneous horn, discoid lupus erythematosus, DSAP, dyskeratosis congenita, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, epidermal inclusion cyst, epidermal nevus, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, epidermolysis bullosa, epidermal inclusion cyst, epidermal nevus, erosive lichen planus (?), erythroplakia, hidradenitis suppurativa, leg ulcers, leukoplakia, lichen planus (chronic oral, hypertrophic), lichen sclerosis, light skin color, linear porokeratosis, luetic interstitial glossitis, lupus vulgaris, necrobiosis lipoidica, nevus sebaceous, perifolliculitis capitis abscendens et suffodiens, porokeratosis of Mibelli, PSS, rhinoscleroma, seborrheic keratosis, speckled leukoplakia, submucosal fibrosis, tropical ulcer, tylosis, wart, warty dyskeratoma, xeroderma pigmentosa, Zinsser-Engman-Cole s.
exposure; arsenic keratosis, betel nut chewing, burn wounds, mineral oils, nicotine stomatitis, paraffin, radiation dermatitis, radiotherapy, radon contaminated rings, snuff dipping, thermal burns, thermal keratosis, UV
infectious; condyloma acuminata, granuloma inguinale, oral florid papillomatosis, osteomyelitis, yaws ulcers (tertiary disease)
neoplastic; Bowen’s d., erythroplasia of Queyrat, Merkel cell carcinoma, Paget’s d., proliferating pilar tumor
other; Fanconi’s d., Hermansky-Pudlak s., Huriez s. (dorsal hands), KID s., Plummer-Vinson s., Rothmund-Thomson s.
squamous cell carcinoma, oral
betel nut chewing, dyskeratosis congenita, EtOH, tobacco use
stasis dermatitis
autoeczematization, lichen simplex chronicus
status cosmeticus
benzoic acid, bronopol, cinnamic acid, dowicil 200, formaldehyde, fragrance, lactic acid, nonionic emulsifiers, propylene glycol, quaternary ammonium compounds, sodium lauryl sulfate, sorbic acid, sunscreen agents, urea
steatocystoma multiplexLEOPARD s., pachyonychia congenita
Stevens-Johnson s.
see erythema multiforme
striae distensae
Marfan s.
subcorneal pustular dermatosis
Crohn d., IgA paraproteinemia, monoclonal gammopathies, myeloma, pyoderma gangrenosum, ulcerative colitis
subcutaneous fat necrosis
pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst
Sweet’s s.
adenocarcinoma (breast, prostate, rectum), ALL, AML (10-20%), autoimmune d. (dermatomyositis, LE, relapsing polychondritis, Sjogren s.), Behçet’s d., carcinoma (gastric, ovarian , testes), chronic granulomatous d., cirrhosis, CLL, CML, erythema nodosum, GCSF, IBD, infections (streptococcosis, yersiniosis), leukemia (hairy cell), lymphoma, monoclonal gammopathy, myelodysplastic s., myeloma, POEMS s., pregnancy, RA, sarcoidosis, thyroid d. (Graves d., Hashimoto thyroiditis), URI, vaccinations
syringocystadenoma papilliferum epidermal nevus, nevus sebaceous
syringoma, eruptive
Down s.
systemic lupus erythematosus
anticardiolipin Ab s., IgA deficiency s., Sjögren’s s.
telogen effluvium
heparin, OCPs
temporal arteritis
polymyalgia rheumatica (50%)
thrombocytopenia
Kasabach-Merritt s., Letterer-Siwe d., SLE, strawberry angiomas, Wiskott-Aldrich s.
thrombosis, deep venous occult carcinoma in patients < 50 years old (RR 19)
thrush (adults)
advanced cancer, AIDS, broad spectrum antibiotics, cytotoxic therapy, dentures, diabetes mellitus, hematologic malignancy, radiation, systemic corticosteroids, thymoma
thymoma
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, Good’s s., lichen planus (esp. oral), myasthenia gravis, pemphigus erythematosus, pemphigoid, SLE
thyroiditis
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, IgA deficiency, IgM deficiency
tinea versicolor
Cushing’s d., diabetes mellitus, herpes gestationis, ichthyosis, immunosuppression, malnutrition, OCPs, pregnancy, systemic steroids
toxic epidermal necrolysis
Crohn’s d., drugs, GVH, HIV infection, leukemia, lymphoma, SLE
trichoepitheliomas
Brooke-Fordyce s., Brooke-Spiegler s., Cowden s., myasthenia gravis, Rombo s., SLE
tuberous sclerosis
cardiac rhabdomyoma, cystic fibromatosis (lung), pheochromocytoma, renal hamartoma, sarcoma
ulcerative colitis
erythema nodosum, IgA deficiency, lichen planus, oral aphthae, pyoderma gangrenosum, pyodermite vegetante of Hallopeau, rheumatoid arthritis, vesiculopustular eruption
ulcers
chromate workers, congenital sensory neuropathy, malum perforans pedia, neuropathies
ulcers, lower extremity
abdominal surgery, CHF, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, injury, Klinefelter’s s., prolidase deficiency, thrombophlebitis
unilateral nevoid telangiectasia
chronic alcoholic liver d. (men), cirrhosis, congenital, estrogen therapy, idiopathic, pregnancy
urticaria (see allergy section)
amebiasis, bullous pemphigoid, carcinoma, cold hemolysins, contactants, cryoglobulins, dermatomyositis, drugs, erythema multiforme, EPP (solar urticaria), foods, inhalants, internal disease, juvenile RA, leukemia, lymphoma, physical factors, polymyositis, psychogenic, rheumatic fever, Schönlein-Henoch s., serum sickness, SLE, Sjögren’s s., TEN, vasculitis (necrotizing)
vasculitis
bacterial endocarditis, bowel-bypass s., mixed cryoglobulinemia, photocopy paper fumes antigens; endogenous antigens (DNA, RF binding to IgG), foods, food additives, infections (hepatitis A, B, C), medications (allopurinol, aminopenicillins, hydantoins, penicillin, propylthiouracil, pyrazolones, sulfonamides, thiazides), proteins (serum sickness), tumor antigens (lymphoreticular or hematopoietic)
vasculitis, cutaneous small vessel
adult T-cell leukemia, AIDS, Behçet’s d., bowel bypass s., cancer (breast, colon, head and neck, lung, prostate, renal), cryoglobulinemia, cystic fibrosis, HIV, Hodgkin’s d., hyperglobulinemic states, lymphosarcoma, multiple myeloma, mycosis fungoides, primary biliary cirrhosis, RA, Sjögren’s s., SLE, ulcerative colitis
vasculitis, leukocytoclastic
drugs & chemicals: allopurinol, aspirin, herbicides, insecticides, iodides, penicillin, petroleum products, phenacetin, propylthiouracil, quinidine, sulfonamides
infections: candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis (A, B, C), histoplasmosis, influenza, mononucleosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, streptococcus B
malignancy: CLL, hairy cell leukemia, histiocytic lymphoma, Hodgkin’s d., multiple myeloma, solid tumors
systemic disease: biliary cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis, hemolytic anemia, mixed cryoglobulinemia, ulcerative colitis
vasculitis, nodular
large calves, livedo, tuberculosis
vasculitis, urticarial
EBV, fluoxetine, HBV, HCV, IgA multiple myeloma, IgM gammopathy, infectious mononucleosis, metastatic testicular teratoma, mixed cryoglobulins, relapsing polychondritis, Schnitzler’s s., serum sickness, Sjögren’s s., SLE (especially in hypocomplementemic)
vesicobullous eruption of chronic inflammatory d.
AIDS (with mycobacterial infection), Behçet’s d., myeloproliferative disease, RA (severe), Sweet’s s., ulcerative colitis
vitiligo
dermatologic: alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, balanitis xerotica obliterans, halo nevus, Kaposi’s sarcoma, leukotrichia, lichen planus, lichen sclerosis, lichen simplex, malignant melanoma, morphea, premature gray hair, progressive systemic scleroderma, psoriasis, Vogt-Koyanagi s.
systemic: Addison’s d. (2%), AIDS, asthma, ataxia telangiectasia, auditory defects (congenital), biliary cirrhosis, Bourneville’s s., candidiasis (mucocutaneous), common variable immunodeficiency s., diabetes mellitus, Down s., GI malignancy, hypoparathyroidism, IgA deficiency, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, iritis, lymphoma, Maffucci’s s., myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia, RA, stress, sunburn, Tay’s s., trauma
thyroid d.: Graves’ d., hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, toxic goiter
vitiligo, facial
Alezzandrini’s s.
vitiligo, universal
multiple endocrine neoplasia s.
Von Hippel-Lindau d.
hypernephroma, pheochromocytoma
warty dyskeratoma
immunosuppressive therapy, tobacco chewing
Werner’s s.
fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, meningioma
Wilms tumor Beckwith-Wiedemann s.
Wiskott-Aldrich s.
astrocytoma, leiomyosarcoma, leukemia, lymphosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma
xanthelasma
apo-E2 phenotype, atherosclerosis, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, familial dysbetalipoproteinemia type III, familial hypercholesterolemia, hepatic cholestasis, hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, normolipemic (50%), polygenic hypercholesterolemia, b-sitosterolemia, sporadic hypercholesterolemia
xanthoma disseminatum
diabetes insipidus (33%), MM, osteolytic lesions
xanthoma striatum palmare
biliary cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia type III & IV
xanthoma, diffuse plane
atopic dermatitis, Castleman d., cryoglobulinemia, CTCL, eosinophilic granulomatosis, leukemia, lymphoma, monoclonal gammopathy, multiple myeloma, paraproteinemia, persistent light reaction, rheumatoid arthritis
xanthoma, eruptive
diabetes mellitus, estrogen, EtOH, familial hyperlipoproteinemia type V, familial hypertriglyceridemia, hypothyroidism, isotretinoin, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, myxedema, nephrotic s., pancreatitis, Von Giercke’s d.
xanthoma, intertriginous
homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (pathognomonic)
xanthoma, palmar crease
familial dysbetalipoproteinemia type III (pathognomonic)
xanthoma, tendinous
b-sitosterolemia, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, diabetes mellitus, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, myxedema, obstructive liver d.
xanthoma, tuberous
hyperlipoproteinemia type II & III
xanthomas
atherosclerosis, biliary disease, CTCL, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, leukemia, lymphedema, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, pancreatitis, renal disease
xanthoma, verrucous bullous d., DLE, ILVEN, LP, psoriasiform inflammation in AIDS
xeroderma pigmentosum
AK, BCC, lacrimation, leukemia, melanoma, mental retardation, neurological disease, photophobia, SCC
xerosisRapp-Hodgkin s. 

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